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59- Surat Alhashr

24 Verses  Maddani (revealed in Madinah)


A'auzu Bellahi mena ash-shytani ar-rajim

I seek refuge in Allah from the accursed Satan

Bismi Ellahi Ar-rhmani Ar-rahim

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful



Sabbaha lellahi ma fee alsamawati wa ma fee alardi wa huwa Alazizu Alhakeem (1).
Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth glorified Allah, and He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.

Huwa allazi akhraja allazina kafaruo men ahli elketabi men diyarehim le-awwali elhashri ma zanantum an yakhrujuo wa zannuo annahum mani-atuhum husuonuhum mena Allahi fa-atahumuo Allahu men haiythuo lam yahtasebuo wa qazafa  fee qulubehimuo alrru'ba you-khrebuona  buyutahum be-aiydehim wa aiydi almu'menena fa'taberuo ya-auli alabsar (2).
It is He who expelled those who disbelieved from among the people of the scripture from their homes at the first gathering, you did not think that they would leave, and they thought that their fortresses would defend them against Allah, but Allah came to them from whence they not expected, and He cast terror into their hearts, they destroyed their houses by their hands and the hands of the believers, so take a lesson O you who have insight!.

Wa-lawla an kataba Allahu alaiyhimuo aljalaa la-azzabahum fee elduonia wa lahum fee alakherati azabuo alnar (3).
And if not that Allah had decreed the exile for them, he would have punished them in the world, and for them in the Hereafter is the punishment of the Fire.

Zaleka be-annahum shaqquo Allaha wa rasulahuo wa man you-shaqqi ellaha fa-inna Allaha shadeeduo aleqab (4).
That is because they opposed Allah, and His Messenger, and whoever opposes Allah, then indeed, Allah is severe in punishment.

Ma qata'tum men leenatin aw taraktumuha qa-ematan ala ausuleha fabe-izni ellahi wali-youkhziya alfaseqeen (5).
Whatever you cut down of the palm-trees or you left then standing on their roots, it was by the permission of Allah, and that He may disgrace the immoral people.

Wa ma afa'a Allahu ala rasulehi menhum fama awjaftum alaiyhi men khailin wa la rekabin wa lakenna Allaha you-salletuo rusulahuo ala man yasha'uo wa Allahu ala kulli shaiy-in qadeer (6).
And what Allah has given as spoils to His Messenger from them, then you did not made expedition for it by horses or camels, but Allah gives His Messengers authority over whomsoever He wills, and Allah is Powerful over everything.

Ma afa'a Allahu ala rasulehi men ahli elqura fa-lellahi wa-lelrasuli wa-lezi elqurba wa-lyatama wa-lmasakeeni wa-bni elsabeeli  kaiy la yakuna dulatan baiyna alaghneiya-ee menkum wa ma atakumuo alrasuluo fa-khuzuhuo wa ma nahakum anhuo fantahuo wa-ttaquo Allaha inna Allaha shadeeduo aleqab (7)
And what Allah has given to His Messenger from the people of the towns is for Allah, and His Messenger, and for those of the near of kin, and the orphans, and the needy, and the wayfarer, so that, it will not be circulation between the rich from among you, and whatever the Messenger gives you, take it, and whatever He forbids you, refrain from it, and fear Allah, indeed, Allah is severe in punishment.

Lel-fauqara-ee almuhajereena allazina aukhrejuo men deiyarihim wa amwalehim yabtaghuona fadlan mena Allahi wa redwanan wa yansuruona  Allaha wa rasulahuo aulaeka humu alsadequon (8).
For the poor emigrants those who were expelled from their homes and their wealth, seeking bounty from Allah and pleasure, and supporting Allah and His Messenger, those they are the truthful.

Wa allazina tabawwa'uo alddara wa alemana men qablihim you-hebbuna man hajara elaiyhim wala yajeduona fee sudurihim hajatan memma auto wa you'theruna ala anfusehim wa law kana behim khasasatun wa man youqa shuhha nafsehi fa-aulaeka humu almuflehuon (9).
And those who settled in the home and in faith from before them, they love those who emigrated to them, and they did not find any want in their breasts of what they were given, and give preference to them over themselves even though they are in need, and whoever is saved from the stinginess of himself, then those are the successful ones.

Wa allazina ja'uo men ba'dehim yaquluona Rabbana eghfir lana wale-ekhwanena allazina sabaquna bel-emani wala taj'al fee qulubena ghillan lellazina amanuo Rabbana innaka ra-ufun raheem (10).
And those who came after them, they say, Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who preceded us in faith, and do not place in our hearts any rancor towards those who believed, Our Lord, indeed You are Compassionate, Most Merciful.

Alam tara ela allazina nafaquo yaquluna le-ekhwanehimuo allazina kafaruo men ahli elketabi la-in aukhrejtum la-nakhrujanna ma'akum wala nutee-uo  feekum ahadan abadan wa-in qutiltum la-nansurannakum wa Allahu yashhaduo innahum la-kazebuon (11).
Did not you see those who practice hypocrisy they say to their brothers who disbelieved from among the people of the scripture, if you are expelled, we will certainly go out with you, and we will not obey anyone about you, ever, and if you are fought, certainly we will help you, and Allah bears witness that they are surely liars. 

La-in aukhrejuo la yakhrujuona ma'ahum, wa la-in quteluo la yansurunahum, wa la-in nasaruhum la-youwallunna aladbara thumma la younsaruon (12)
If they are expelled, they will not leave with them, and if they are fought, they will not help them, and even if they help them, they will surely turn their backs, then they will not be helped.

La-antum ashadduo rahbatan fee suduorehim mena Allahi zalika be-annahum qawmun la yafqahuon (13).
You are more intense in fear in their breasts than Allah, that is because they are a people who do not understand.

La youqatelunakum jamee-an ella fee quran muhassanatin aw men wara-ee judurin ba'suhum baiynahum shadeedun tahsabuhum jamee-an wa qulubuhum shatta zalika be-annahum qawmun la ya'qeluon (14).
They will not fight you all except in fortified towns or from behind walls, their enmity between them is severe, you think that they are together but their hearts are varied, that is because they are a people who do not reason.

Ka-mathali allazina men qablehim qareeban zaquo wabala amrehim wa lahum azabun aleem (15).
Like the example of those from before them in near past, they tasted the evil consequences of their affairs, and for them there is a painful punishment.

Ka-mathali ash-shaytani iz qala lel-insani ekfur fa-lamma kafara qala inni baree-on menka inni akhafuo Allaha Rabba ala'lameen (16).
Like the example of Satan when he says to man "disbelieve" but when he disbelieved, he says I am disavowed from you, indeed, I fear Allah, the Lord of the worlds. 

fa-kana aqebatahuma annahuma fee elnari khaleedaiyni feeha wa zaleka jaza-uo alzalemeen (17)
So the end of both of them is that they will be in Fire, abiding therein forever, and that is the recompense of the wrongdoers.

Ya-ayyuha allazina amanuo ettaquo Allaha wal-tanzur nafsun ma qaddamat leghadin wa-ttaquo Allaha inna Allaha khabeerun bema ta'maluon (18).
O you who believed, fear Allah, and let every soul look to what it has prepared for tomorrow, and fear Allah, indeed, Allah is All-Aware of what you do. 

Wa-la takunuo ka-llazina nasuo Allaha fa-ansahum anfusahum aulaeka humu alfasequon (19).
And do not be like those who forgot Allah, so He made them forget themselves, those are the immoral people.

La yastawey ass-habuo alnari wa ass-habuo aljannati  ass-habuo aljannati humu alfa-ezuon (20).
Not equal are the companions of Hellfire, and the companions of Paradise, the companions of Paradise are the winners.

La-w anzalna haza alqurana ala jabalin lara'ytahuo khashe'an mutasadde'an men khashiyati ellahi wa telka alamthaluo nadrebuha lennasi la'llahum yatafakkaruon (21).
If We sent down this Quran on a mountain, you would have seen it humbled, cracked out of the fear of Allah, and these examples, We cited it to the people, so that they may give thought.

Huwa Allahu allazi la elaha ella huwa alemuo alghaiybi wa-shshahadati huwa Ar-rahmanu Ar-reheem (22).
He is Allah, there is no God but He, All-Knower of the unseen and the witnessed, the Most Gracious, The Most Merciful.

Huwa Allahu allazi la elaha ella huwa Almaleku Alquddusu Alsalamu almu'menu Almuhaiymenu Alazizu Aljabbaru Almutakabberu subhana Allahi amma you-shrekuon (23).
He is Allah, there is no God but He, the King, the Holy, the Giver of peace, the Guarantor, the Dominator, the All-Mighty, The Irresistible, the Majestic, glory to be Allah from what they associate.

Huwa Allahu alkhalequ Albaree'u Almussawerru lahuo alasma-uo alhusna you-sabbehuo lahuo ma fee alsamawati wa alardi wa huwa Alazizu Alhakeem (24)
He is Allah, the Creator, the Designer, the Giver of shapes, to Him belong the beautiful names, Whatever is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Him, and He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.


Simplified interpretation:



 Surat Alhashr is one of the seven Surahs of the Holy Quran that begins with glorification, and it is the only Surah that begins with glorification and ends with it, and when Sa'id asked Ibn Abbas about Surat Alhashr, Ibn Abbas replied "Say Surat An-nadir", relative to the Jews of Banu An-nadir, whom Allah's Messenger (PBUH) gave a covenant when He came to Almadinah, but they broke the covenant that was between them and Him, so they were expelled from Almadinah.


 Allah says in the first verse "Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth glorified Allah, and He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise", where all creatures glorifies their Creator but man does not understand their way of glorification as mentioned in Surat Alisraa Aya (44), and Allah is All-Mighty who is Severe in His revenge on those who disobeyed Him, and He is All-Wise who manages His creation with wisdom in His laws and destiny.


 Then Allah speaks in the next three verses (2-4) about the Jews of Banu An-nadir who broke their covenant with His Messenger, and said "It is He who expelled those who disbelieved from among the people of the scripture from their homes at the first gathering, you did not think that they would leave, and they thought that their fortresses would defend them against Allah, but Allah came to them from whence they not expected, and He cast terror into their hearts, they destroyed their houses by their hands and the hands of the believers, so take a lesson O you who have insight!, and if not that Allah had decreed the exile for them, he would have punished them in the world, and for them in the Hereafter is the punishment of the Fire, That is because they opposed Allah, and His Messenger, and whoever opposes Allah, then indeed, Allah is severe in punishment".


 When the Jews of Banu An-nadir broke their covenant with Allah's Messenger, Allah commanded Him to expel them from Madinah, so Allah's Messenger expelled them from their fortified fortresses, which they thought that it would prevent them from Allah's wrath, but it was of no use for them. Although the Muslims thought that they would not leave Almadinah because of their strength, but Allah came to them from whence they did not expect and He cast terror into their hearts, and it was said that they were terrified when their master "Ka'b Bin Alashraf" was killed. And our prophet allowed them to take with them what only their camels could carry, so some of them went to Alsham, and that was the first gathering and remains the gathering on the day of resurrection, and they were the second to be gathered from the people of the scripture after Banu Qaiynuqa', and to be expelled from their homes that were destroyed by their hands and the hands of the believers, and if not that Allah had decreed the exile for them, he would have punished them in the world by killing and captivity, and He will surely punish them in the Hellfire in the Hereafter. Allah cited that example for those who have insight so that they may think of the consequences of those who oppose Allah and oppose His Messenger and whosoever opposes Allah, He will punish him with a severe punishment.


 Then Allah says in Aya (5) "Whatever you cut down of the palm-trees or you left then standing on their roots, it was by the permission of Allah, and that He may disgrace the immoral people", where Ibn Abbas said in narration of Hafs Bin Ghiyath "They were forced from their forts, and they were ordered to cut down the date-palms (of the enemy), and that cause some hesitation in their breasts, so the Muslims said: we cut some of them and we left some of them, so let us ask Allah's Messenger is we are to be rewarded for those that we cut down, and if we will be burdened for what we left, so Allah, Almighty, revealed this Aya.


 And Allah says in the next verse (6) "And what Allah has given as spoils to His Messenger from them, then you did not made expedition for it by horses or camels, but Allah gives His Messengers authority over whomsoever He wills, and Allah is Powerful over everything", where as narrated by Umar: "The properties of Banu An-nadir were among the booty that Allah gave to His Messenger such as booty were not obtained by any expedition on the part of Muslims, neither with horses nor with camels, so those properties were for Allah's Messenger only, and He used to provide thereof the yearly expenditure for His wives, and dedicate the rest of its revenues for purchasing arms and horses as war material to be used in Allah's cause".


 Then Allah says in Aya (7) "And what Allah has given to His Messenger from the people of the towns is for Allah, and His Messenger, and for those of the near of kin, and the orphans, and the needy, and the wayfarer, so that, it will not be circulation between the rich from among you, and whatever the Messenger gives you, take it, and whatever He forbids you, refrain from it, and fear Allah, indeed, Allah is severe in punishment". Allah gave His Prophet in the previous verse the properties of Banu An-nadir, but what He got from the people of the other towns and not obtained by any expedition on the part of Muslims, neither with horses nor with camels (Fai'), will be divided into six parts as mentioned in this verse, and this does not contradict Aya (41) of Surat Alanfal when Allah said "And know that anything you obtain (of war booty) then indeed, for Allah is one-fifth of it and for the Messenger, and for those of the near of kin, and the orphans, and the needy, and wayfarer", because the intended booty here is the properties taken from the infidels in the battles with horses and camels (Ghaneemah), and the one-fifth will be divided into six parts as mentioned in the verse whereas the rest of the booty will be for the warriors (Almujahedeen).


 Based on this, the current Surah deals with the spoils that come without a battle (Fai') whereas Surat Alanfal deals with the spoils that come as a result of the battle (Ghaneemah), and it cannot be said that Aya (41) of Surat Alanfal abrogated what was mentioned in the current Surah because it was revealed after the battle of Badr and the current Surah was revealed in Banu An-nadir after it. And Allah has specified the method of distribution of Fai' so that it does not go to the rich rather than the poor and the needy, and Allah said to them "And whatever the Messenger gives you, take it, and whatever He forbids you, refrain from it, and fear Allah, indeed, Allah is severe in punishment", that is because He only commands good and forbids evil, so that Our Prophet said in narration of Abu Hurayrah ''Whoever obeys Me, obeys Allah, and whoever disobeys Me, disobeys Allah".


 When Abdullah Bin Mas'ud said ''Allah curses those ladies who practice tattooing and those who get themselves tattooed, and those ladies who remove the hair from their faces, and those who make artificial spaces between their teeth in order to look more beautiful whereby they change Allah's creation", his saying reached a lady from Bani Asd called Um Ya'qub, and she came to Abdullah and said to him ''I have come to know that you have cursed such and such (ladies)?, he replied: why should I not curse these whom Allah's Messenger has cursed and who are cursed in Allah's book, Um Ya'qub said: I have read the whole Quran, but I did not find in it what you say, he said: Verily, if you have read it, you have found it, Did not you read "And whatever the Messenger gives you, take it, and whatever He forbids you, refrain from it", she replied: yes I did, he said ''Verily Allah's Messenger forbade such things", she said: but I see your wife doing these things, he said: go and watch her, she went and watched her but could not see anything she said, and he said ''If my wife was as you thought, I would not have intercourse with her". 


 Those who deserve the money of Fai' are the poor emigrants who left their homes, their money, their families, and their clans, and went out for the love of Allah and His Messenger and supported the religion of Islam by fighting in the way of Allah as mentioned in Aya (8) ''For the poor emigrants those who were expelled from their homes and their wealth, seeking bounty from Allah and pleasure, and supporting Allah and His Messenger, those they are the truthful".


 Then Allah says in the next verse (9) ''And those who settled in the home and in faith from before them, they love those who emigrated to them, and they did not find any want in their breasts of what they were given, and give preference to them over themselves even though they are in need, and whoever is saved from the stinginess of himself, then those are the successful ones", where Allah praised Alansar, who lived in Madinah before the emigrants and believed before many of them, because they loved good for the emigrants and did not envy them for the spoils that Allah had given them. So that Umar said: "I recommend that my successor should take care of and secure the rights of the early emigrants, and I also advise my successor to be kind to the Ansar who had homes (in Madinah) and had adopted the faith before the Prophet migrated to them, and to accept the good from their good ones, and excuse their wrong doers".


 Not only did they loved the emigrants but they preferred them over themselves despite their need, where as narrated by Abu Hurayrah "A man came to Allah's Messenger and said: "O Allah's Messenger! I am suffering from fatigue and hunger, The Prophet sent to His wives, but the Messenger found nothing with them, then Allah's Messenger said "Isn't there anybody who can entertain this man tonight, so that Allah may be Merciful to Him?, An Ansari man got up and said ''I will entertain him O Allah's Messenger", so he went to his wife and said to her 'This is the guest of Allah's Messenger, so do not keep anything away from him, she said "By Allah, I have nothing but the children's food", he said ''When the children ask for their dinner, put them to bed and put out the light, we shall not take our meals tonight", she did so, in the morning the Ansari man went to Allah's Messenger who said: ''Allah was astonished or laughed on so-and-so (He and His wife), then Allah revealed "And give preference to them over themselves even though they are in need". Then Allah said ''And whoever is saved from the stinginess of himself, then those are the successful ones", that is, whoever Allah saved him from the stinginess, and prevented him from following his own whims, then he will be of those who are successful, and this is the same of Aya (16) of Surat Altaghabun.


 And Allah says in Aya (10) "And those who came after them, they say, Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who preceded us in faith, and do not place in our hearts any rancor towards those who believed, Our Lord, indeed You are Compassionate, Most Merciful". This Aya includes everyone who came after the emigrants and Alansar, and Allah praised them because they asked forgiveness for those who preceded them in faith, and supplicated Him not to place in their hearts any rancor towards them, and this Aya urges the love of the companions of our Prophet, and urges seeking forgiveness for them. And Our Prophet said in narration of Anas Bin Malik "The sign of belief is to love Alansar, and the sign of hypocrisy is to hate Alansar".


 Then Allah tells about the hypocrites, led by Abdullah Bin Ubai Bin Salul, when they went to the Jews of Banu An-nadir and promised them victory, and urged them not to leave Madinah, where He says in the next two verses (11,12) "Did not you see those who practice hypocrisy they say to their brothers who disbelieved from among the people of the scripture, if you are expelled, we will certainly go out with you, and we will not obey anyone about you, ever, and if you are fought, certainly we will help you, and Allah bears witness that they are surely liars, if they are expelled, they will not leave with them, and if they are fought, they will not help them, and even if they help them, they will surely turn their backs, then they will not be helped". It had already been shown that they were liars because the Jews of Banu An-nadir were expelled from Madinah and they did not go out with them nor they helped them.


 And Allah addresses the believers in the next two verses (13,14) and says "You are more intense in fear in their breasts than Allah, that is because they are a people who do not understand, they will not fight you all except in fortified towns or from behind walls, their enmity between them is severe, you think that they are together but their hearts are varied, that is because they are a people who do not reason", that is, the Jews of Bani An-nadir fear Muslims more than they fear Allah because they do not understand the power and the greatness of Allah, and because of their intense fear of Muslims, they fight them in fortified towns or from behind walls, and their enmity between them is intense, and when the Muslims see them together, they think that they are united while they are divided and very different, and that is because they have no reason to understand the command of Allah.


 Then Allah says in the next verse (15) "Like the example of those from before them in near past, they tasted the evil consequences of their affairs, and for them there is a painful punishment", they are like the Jews of Banu Qaiynuqa', whom Allah's Messenger expelled them from Madinah before the Jews of Banu An-nadir, as a result of breaking their covenant with Him. And there will be a painful punishment awaits them in the Hereafter.


 Also Allah has cited an example for them in their trust in the hypocrites when they promised them the victory if they were expelled from Almadinah and then they broke their promise, like the Satan who deceived a man until he disbelieved and then he disavowed from him and said ''I fear Allah, the Lord of the Worlds" as mentioned in Aya (16) "Like the example of Satan when he says to man "disbelieve" but when he disbelieved, he says I am disavowed from you, indeed, I fear Allah, the Lord of the worlds". The recompense of Satan and the one who obeyed him and disbelieved in Allah and His Messengers will be the Hellfire, both of them will be abide therein forever as mentioned in Aya (17) "So the end of both of them is that they will be in Fire, abiding therein forever, and that is the recompense of the wrongdoers".


 Then Allah addresses the believers in the next three verses (18-20) and says "O you who believed, fear Allah, and let every soul look to what it has prepared for tomorrow, and fear Allah, indeed, Allah is All-Aware of what you do, and do not be like those who forgot Allah, so He made them forget themselves, those are the immoral people, not equal are the companions of Hellfire, and the companions of Paradise, the companions of Paradise are the winners", where Allah commanded the believers to fear Him by doing what He commanded, and leaving what He prohibited, and to look to what they did of deeds for the day of resurrection, and He commanded them again to fear Him and said that He is All-Aware of what they do secretly and openly. Also He commanded them not to be like those who forget Allah and His rights over them, so He made them forget work for a day when neither money nor children will benefit, and at that time, the companions of Hellfire will not be equal with the companions of Paradise where the companions of Paradise are the winners. 


 And Allah says in Aya (21) ''If We sent down this Quran on a mountain, you would have seen it humbled, cracked out of the fear of Allah, and these examples, We cited it to the people, so that they may give thought'', that is, Allah cited an example for people so that they may give thought and said that if the Holy Quran was sent down on a mountain despite its strength and solidity, it will be humbled and cracked out of fear of Allah, so how about man?, and this is Allah's command for the people if the Holy Quran is revealed to them that they take it with great fear and humility.


 Then Allah describes Himself in the last three verses (22-24) with a number of His Most beautiful names about which our Prophet (PBUH) said in narration of Abu Hurayrah "Allah has ninety-nine names, one hundred minus one, whoever counts and preserves them, will enter paradise", and Allah concluded the Surah as He began it with glorification, where He says "He is Allah, there is no God but He, All-Knower of the unseen and the witnessed, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful, He is Allah, there is no God but He, the King, the Holy, the Giver of peace, the Guarantor, the Dominator, the All-Mighty, The Irresistible, the Majestic, glory to be Allah from what they associate, He is Allah, the Creator, the Designer, the Giver of shapes, to Him belong the beautiful names, Whatever is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Him, and He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise".


No one Knows its interpretation except Allah




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