93- Surat Aldduha

11 Verses Meccan (revealed in Mecca)

A'auzu Bellahi mena ash-shytani ar-rajim

I seek refuge in Allah from the accursed Satan

Bismi Ellahi Ar-rhmani Ar-rahim

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Wa Aldduha (1).
By the forenoon.

Wal layili iza saja (2).
And by the night when it becomes darkness.

Ma wada'aka Rabbuka wa ma qala (3).
Your Lord has not neither forsaken you nor detested you.

Wa la alakheratuo khairun laka mena aluola (4).
Surely, the hereafter is better for you than the first life.

Wa la sawfa you'teeka Rabbuka fatarda (5).
Your Lord will give you, then you will be satisfied.

Alam yajidka yateeman fa-awa (6).
Did He not find you an orphan, and gave You a shelter?.

Wa wajadaka dallan fa-hada (7).
And He found You misguided, then He guided You.

Wa wajadaka a'ellan fa-aghna (8).
And He found You in need, then He made You need-free.

Fa amma alyateema fala taq-har (9).
As for the orphan, do not oppress him.

Wa amma as-saela fala tan-har (10).
And as for the beggar, do not repel him.

Wa amma bene'mati Rabbika fa-haddeth (11).
And as for the favor of Your Lord, report it.

Simplified interpretation:

 Surat Aldduha is like Surat Alsharh in which Allah enumerates His favors upon His Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), and gives Him the glad tidings, and assigned Him what He should do in the last three verses. But the current Surah begins by reassuring Our Prophet that His Lord did not forsaken Him. Surat Aldduha is one of the four Surahs that Our prophet commanded Mu'az Bin Gabal to recite them, when he led His companions in the prayer (Imam) in order not to prolong the prayer. 

 Allah swears in the first two verses by Aldduha (forenoon) and by the night when it covers with darkness, that He did not forsaken or detested His Messenger, and it was narrated by Jundub Bin Sufyan, and Jundub Albajali that: "A lady came to Our Prophet and said: O Muhammad, I think that Your Satan has forsaken you (in conveying Quran), for I have not seen Him with You for two or three nights". On that Allah revealed: "By the forenoon, and by the night when it becomes darkness, Your Lord has not neither forsaken you nor detested you".

 After that Allah gave Him a glad tidings in the next two verses (4,5), and said that the hereafter and what Allah has prepared for Him therein is better than the worldly life and what is in it, that is, do not grieve for what you have missed, what you will have with your lord is better for you than it.

 This tidings also for all those who believed, where Allah Almighty says in Surat Alshura Aya (36): "So whatever you are given of a thing is but a passing enjoyment of the worldly life, and what is with Allah is better and more lasting for those who believed and put their trust upon their Lord".

 Then Allah Said that He will give Muhammad (PBUH) in the hereafter from the best of His blessing until he will be satisfied, and the commentators differed in determining what Allah will give Him, because it came in general, some of them said that Allah will give Him the river of Alkawthar, while others said that Allah will give Him palaces in paradise and it contains whatever He wishes, and there are those who said that He will be satisfied for none of His household enters Hellfire, and it was said none of His Ummah in general remains in Hellfire. 

 In the sixth verse Allah addresses His Messenger as an acknowledgment and says: "Did He not find you an orphan, and gave You a shelter?, Where His grandfather "Abdul Muttalib", and after him His uncle "Abu Talib" took care of Him after the death of His parents; His father died while His mother was pregnant with Him, and His mother died when He was six years old.

 Then Allah says to our Prophet in the next verse (7) that He found him misguided, then He guided him, that is, You was lost before prophecy, and Allah guided you to the true faith, where Allah said to His Messenger in Surat Alshura Aya (52): "And thus We have revealed to you a Spirit from Our command. You did not know what is the book or what is the faith".

 Allah has linked between belief and guidance, and between disbelief and misguidance, and this evidence from Surat Alnahl Aya (36) where He says: "And We certainly sent into every nation a messenger saying worship Allah and avoid Altaghuot and among them were those whom Allah guided, and among them were those whom deserving of misguidance".

 Then Allah mentioned the third bounty upon our Prophet and said that He found Him poor, then He made Him rich and independent Aya (8), richness here may refers to richness of the wealth and richness of the soul. So Allah has changed his condition before prophecy to the best of conditions, therefore He commanded Him not to oppress the orphan Aya (9), where Allah has attached a great importance to the orphan, and mentioned the word "Orphan" and its derivatives 23 times in the Holy Quran. 

 And as for the beggar, Allah commanded His Messenger not repulse him Aya (10), and we are commanded not to cause pain to the one who asks, where Allah says in Surat Albaqarah Aya (263): "kind speech and forgiveness are better than a charity followed by teasing".

 In the last verse Allah commanded our Prophet to talk about the favors that He has bestowed upon him, and to spread what Allah has blessed him by thanks and praise, and it was said that Allah commanded Him in this Ayah to narrate the Holy Quran and prophecy, that is: report what You was sent for. But there are those who have gone beyond the original sense of the word "haddeth" saying that Allah said to him that His gratitude for Allah's grace is to do same favors to the others. 

 These three commands were not only for Our Prophet (PBUH), but also for all Muslims, So He, in turn, commanded us to do so, and said about the orphan in narration of Sahl Bin Said: ''The guardian of the orphan and I will be like these two in paradise, and He put His two fingers together (the middle and the index fingers)". And whenever a beggar came to Him or when He was asked for some thing, He used to say to His companions in narration of Abu Musa: "Help and recommend him and will receive the reward for it, and Allah will bring about what He wills through His Prophet's tongue".

 And as for narrating Allah's favors, He said in narration of Jabir Bin Abdullah: "If someone is donated something, and he mentions it, he thanks for it, and if he conceals it, he is ungrateful for it". So Allah is more deserving of His blessings being mentioned, and this is a matter of gratitude to Him.

No one Knows its interpretation except Allah


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